Introduction to High Density Interconnects(HDI) PCB


In the current evolving PCB technology, there has been the introduction of innovative forms of PCB designs. One example is the HDI PCBs, otherwise called High-Density Interconnect PCBs. Assuming that you’re an individual from the business or a specialist, there is a need for you to equip yourself with the knowledge of this PCB variation.

The need to expand functionality and reduce package size has generally cooperated to drive the growth of HDI. Incorporating new parts to electronic items required extra components and circuitry components, however, demand in the market, whether for customer or business electronics, required more modest impressions and lower power usage (estimated as battery life). HDI began by sorting the issue of how to mount parts all the more proficiently.

In this article, we are going to take a look at what High-density Interconnect (HDI) are, their design, their benefits, their different applications, and their making process.


About (HDI) High-Density Interconnect PCB

  • High-Density Interconnector (HDI) is the state-of-the-art innovation for the development of printed circuit boards (PCBs). It utilizes micro via technology for PCBs with high wiring circulation density. As such, HDI PCB is a conservative board intended for items with more modest impression areas.
  • One significant advancement that made HDI conceivable is the micro via, a better approach for interfacing parts on a circuit board. Conventional PCB technology, from the last part of the 1940s through the 1980s, depended on photo-carved traces between parts, frequently utilizing mounting openings that went totally through the PCB for simplicity of assembling. Starting in the last part of the 1990s, the micro via circuit way with an altogether lower profundity to-diameter aspect ratio saw extreme testing for performance and unwavering quality.




There are roughly five unique variants of Via/Micro vias arrangements that can be utilized in HDI PCBs:

  • Stacked Vias: This type of PCB is infused with electroplated copper to interconnect high-density layers.


  • Stacked Micro vias: This is a micro via formed by stacking 1 or more micro via in a via that allows for 3 or more interconnection between conductive layers.

  • Staggered Vias: Formed when vias of different layers of PCBs are connected but not overlapping with each other.


  • Staggered Micro vias: A bunch of micro vias, framed on at least two distinct layers, which are balanced with the such that the land measurements are greater.
  • Via in Pad: Via in pad configuration is the act of putting a via into the metal part of a surface-mount footprint.


Benefits of High-Density Interconnect PCBs

HDI has many benefits as with it you can create compact small yet effective and powerful PCBs. Let’s dig into the beneficial aspects that come with HDI PCBs.

  1. Compactness

  • These PCBs are incredibly compact. Taking into account that HDI PCBs have a higher wiring capability, they are probably the most ideal choice for engineers searching for the littlest circuit board with high quality. HDI limit makes it more straightforward to transform a ten-layered PCB into a 4 or 5 layered one, which is incredible for those searching for more modest boards without diminishing quality.
  • Since most purchasers incline toward little gadgets, this can be a gigantic design advantage.
  1. Allows for the incorporation of more components

  • With High- density interconnects (HDI) PCBs, there is a higher capacity to put more electrical components on one side.
  • These HDI PCBs use blind and covered vias, and Via-in-Pad innovation, as strategies for setting parts nearer together, which brings about quicker signal transmission. Making it an ideal innovation for radio frequency (RF) circuits.
  1. Greater battery life.

  • HDI PCBs use less battery power when contrasted with customary ones. This is a direct result of cutting-edge production technology.
  • This innovation ties the electrical components coming about in the minimization of energy loss.
  • HDI circuits use vias rather than through openings that additionally lessen the power usage. This impact expands the life expectancy of your battery.
  1. Greater strength.

  • HDI PCBs are designed to utilize stacked vias, which accommodate more structural strength, in contrast with other PCBs.
  • This implies that they can be utilized in harsh conditions, in contrast with others, given the design’s intrinsic shielding and backing.
  1. Allows for better density transmission.

  • The high-density transmission in HDI PCB decreases impedance enlistment, works on signal integrity, and also has quicker routing abilities.


  1. Allows for higher transmission reliability.

  • If you are utilizing smaller BGA and QFP bundles in your plans and applications, HDI PCBs offer greater dependability in transmission when your PCB configuration cuts to the chase of large-scale production.
  • HDI PCBs can host thick BGA and QFP bundles than earlier versions of PCB technology.
  1. Allows for lower heat transfer.

  • Thermal transfer in HDI PCBs is diminished because heat will travel a lesser distance towards the vent from the point of their introduction to the vent for escape.
  1. Allows for management of conductivity.

  • Based on a particular board configuration, you can fill VIAs with non-conductive or conductive materials to make transmission easier between the parts.
  • You can likewise profit from better functionality since VIA-in-pad and blind VIAs let parts stay together. This prompts a diminished part-to-part transmission range, accordingly bringing about fewer intersection delays, lower transmission times, and greater signal strength.
  1. Allows for a smaller form factor.

  • If you are hoping to save space, you cannot do that better than the HDI board.
  • This is because an HDI PCB can decrease the number of required layers.
  • For example, if you are utilizing a customary through-hole PCB with eight layers, you can supplant it with an HDI utilizing a via-in-pad PCB with only four layers.
  • This implies that you will have a PCB that is small in size, containing VIAs that are essentially imperceptible.
  1. Laser-drill technology.

  • This innovation can change a PCB into a refined electronic circuit.
  • The laser-drill production style implies that small boards can now be utilized, providing the board with great heat resistance.

How High-Density interconnect PCBs are Made.

They are built out of various layers of conducting materials that are isolated by a dielectric material, which are stuck together by adhesive and connected by micro-vias.


HDI PCB Stack up

When manufacturing HDI PCBs, the following three approaches should be taken into consideration:

  1. Regular or standard lamination involving the use of vias /stratified thru-holes.
  2. Using plated through, covered, and blind vias for consecutive overlay/lamination.
  3. Using microvias for overlay development.
  • Various kinds of HDI stack-up. It is proposed in one of the standards (IPC-2315) that manufacturers use one from 6 different stack-up types for HDI PCBs. They are ordered from type one to type six. All things considered; the sort classified with IV turns into a decent choice for the HDI board due to a few ensuing issues. One of them is the assembling cost, which makes it an improper plan for mass production. Moreover, there are specific plan and assembly impediments in which the PCB merchants have not found a solution. Because of the plan and price impediments, in this section, we will just talk about HDI Stack types I, II, and III. What’s more here are the details of the 3 types.

HDI Stack up Type I

  • At the point when you take a look at the board structure, you will understand that there is a covered center or core with at least one micro via layer.
  • These multi-facets can be placed on both different sides, regardless of being conceivable on one side.
  • Even though the customary Type I doesn’t allow you to put covered vias, you are permitted to utilize blind and PTH vias.
  • Also considering the number of complete layers, you ought to look at continuing with fewer dielectrics (FR-4) most likely infer to delamination as a result of large temperatures. This will presumably be expected to exemplify a lead-free method of soldering.
  • Additionally, the proportion of length with opening width likely be significant for unwavering quality, likewise, you should continuously keep up with that proportion under 10 in the plated through-hole.

Image: HDI Stack-up type I.


  • The quality of HDI stack up Type I is a course of action of a buried core with 1 layer of micro vias, either on one of the sides of the different sides. HDI PCB stack up Type I most likely use blind vias and PTH vias, even though it isn’t covered vias.
  • 2 factors confine the layer measure of the shrouded core in HDI PCBs Type I:
  1. FR-4 dielectrics with exceptionally thin attributes can delaminate under high temperatures required for lead-free soldering.
  2. The ratio/proportion element or absolute of length to the opening width in the plated PTH through-hole via of must be smaller than ten for keeping sensible dependability.
  • Thusly, HDI stack up Type I won’t turn out to be astoundingly more ideal than the cover for high-thick boards which have different BGAs with pin-count.
  • This is because the via pads of PTH will expect to expand its aspect for greater counts of layers.
  • Furthermore, the use of micro via with a single layer won’t furnish fair benefits with the extraordinary aspects such as less thin traces and diameter vias.

HDI Stack up Type II

  • In stack up type II, you are expected to put at least one micro via layer along the edges.
  • Moreover, you are not expected to put them on both sides, but at least one is essential.
  • Manufacturers once in a while go through with staggering or stacking them.
  • It relies upon covered vias, and likely they stagger microvias from different ones.
  • The specialists analyze that this strategy is significantly more fitting for sheets with high-thickness spec, but you should recollect similar limitations similarly as with the HDI type I stack up technique.
  • Then, at that point, you simply have the option to put microvias in external layers, which prompts specific limitations for certain undertakings.

Image: HDI Stack up Type II

  • With one layer of micro vias, either on one of the sides or both of the sides, manufacturers likely fit certain micro vias in the middle of other microvias, then, at that point, store them close to buried vias.
  • Even though the HDI stack up Type II is strikingly better contrasting with the HDI Type I in high-thick boards using different fine-pitch parts, its limitations are comparable with the HDI stack up Type I for the part of the constraint in how much covered core layers.

HDI Stack up Type III

  • The basic distinction between HDI type II stack up and type III stack up is that in this methodology, you want to place at least two microvias layers in the sides and you are not expected to place them on both 2 sides.
  • Profoundly, this stack-up arrangement could be a decent choice for PCBs with high thickness with many layers and use different enormous BGAs with fine-pitch.
  • In the thin (FR-4) dielectrics as well as PTH openings, comparable requirements will exist.
  • The critical advantage of HDI type III stack up is that you can use the layers outside for ground and power planes. You can acquire that by putting microvias in inward layers, that is deliberately to ensure that the producers have sufficient layers to be used for routing of a signal.
  • At the point when you approve of the more costly expense, you likely use vias with stacks for astounding routing thickness.

Image: HDI type III stack up.

Designing High-Density Interconnect (HDI) PCB.

Common aspects to consider when designing HDI PCBs.

  • Before designing HDI PCB, we ought to consider a few common viewpoints into our HDI PCB design:
  1. Heat build-up: HDI regularly build-up heat and so you need to consider the thermal integrity of micro vias and trace widths in fast signal designs.
  2. EMI/EMC: All those radiation imperatives, for example, forestalling accidental radio wires and functional noise, especially as HDI is used for high-velocity signal plans.
  3. Impedance Control: You should oversee tight impedance (around ±10%) on dielectric layer density, spacings, and trace widths to ensure the impedance doesn’t impact the strength of the signal.
  • The want to factor heat, electromagnetic, and actual imperatives into an HDI PCB design affixes a ton of intricacy to the design cycle.
  • In any case, some EDA (Electronic Design Automation) programming devices have been created to diminish the complexity of tackling multi-layered PCB issues.

Tips for Designing High-density interconnect PCB Boards.

  • Planning PCB layout might be fairly mind-boggling in which the designers need to make hard determinations related to viewpoints to be considered as the main ones.
  • Then, at that point, the cycle turns out to be more complex when we design PCB for significant systems like automotive, clinical gadgets, military, or aviation, and systems with high-performance things like IoT and HDI PCBs.
  • Without considering the board design type, the top assembling outcomes are accomplished when the architect or designer joins the procedure of DFM that targets the benefits to the development of PCB. This is adjusted with the capability of their contract manufacturer (CM).
  • Design for Manufacturing (DFM) is an assortment of guidelines and rules which focus on a specific phase of manufacturing processes like a DFA (design for assembly) and DFT (design for testability). DFM likewise can be concerned about a specific kind of board configuration like HDI PCB boards.
  • Let’s discuss some crucial design tips which are pointed toward improving HDI PCB board fabrication.
  1. Sorting of vias to limit the complexity of the cycle or process.

  • The vias choice is a critical resolve that not only characterizes the assembling process required but also impacts the processing time and additional expenses.
  • The usage of buried or blind, micro vias, assists with decreasing material expenses and the number of layers.
  • However, the choice of if to use pad via, close vias in pad impacts the process intricacy.
  1. Give distance components or parts to limit tension and EMI

  • When a part’s position is with the objective that via positions are asymmetrically isolated, uneven strain can be epitomized in the board.
  • This can astoundingly impact throughput, how many sheets/boards are made.
  • Parasitic inductances, as well as capacitances from neighboring pins, presumably impact signal integrity.
  • Subsequently, it is proposed that displaying EMI to extract parasitics be included during the designing process.
  1. Select a small measure of components to employ HDI

  • The parts choice is generally critical; all things considered, the optimization of the choice of components is more significant for HDI PCB boards.
  • The components for your plan of the HDI PCB characterize trace areas, widths, sizes, and types for stack up and drill openings.
  • Execution capacity is a noticeable concern. Nonetheless, traceability, accessibility, and bundling ought to be considered too. Replacing components or overhauling the current design can help the additional material expenses and time.
  1. Tracing of the route to reduce issues of signal strength.

  • One illustration of the HDI benefits is the capacity to use more modest widths of the trace for the spread of the signal.
  • Reducing, widths of the traces should be intended to get the ideal signal integrity.
  • It incorporates using the most limited lengths of the traces, adequate digital and ground planes, steady impedances, power, and analog signal separation.


High-density PCB manufacturing process.

  1. The stack-up of the 1st HDI PCB.


The initial step of HDI fabricating requires a lamination process, like a customary PCB board. After overlay, laser drill out layer to sub out layer.

  1. Stack up of 2nd step HDI PCB.

The 2nd step of HDI production requires doubling of the lamination with blind buried openings. For instance, in assembling a six Layers HDI PCB there is a need to laminate L2 to L4 layer board, then laser drill L2-L3 or/and L4-L5, and finish different cycles.

  1. Stack up of 3rd step HDI PCB with buried via and blind via


The 3rd or 4th step of the HDI producing process is like the first or second step. The main contrast is that it requires more emphasis on the overlay cycle.

  1. Layer Connection of HDI PCB

In this sort of HDI PCB, there is a need for engineers to manage lamination stack up symmetrically. However, don’t demolish the original connection. What’s more its intricacy relies upon the original plan of PCB.


  • Going with a High-Density Interconnect PCB allows you the opportunity to take your mechanical game to an unrivaled norm. Not only are HDI PCBs practical, but also can bear large frequencies and are astounding for cell phones like tablets, PDAs, and workstations. You can make items that offer higher productivity and strength in smaller bundles, with practically no think twice about execution or plan.
  • Utilizing High-Density Interconnect PCBs will hoist your innovation to an entirely different level. These little PCBs are savvy, endure higher frequencies, and are incredible when utilized in our day-to-day gadgets. This is only a short prologue to this innovation, which is quickly turning into a good choice for electrical specialists. Need further developed data? Then, at that point, kindly feel free to our experts today to find out about this intriguing type of PCB innovation.